Process Applications and Temperature Profiles

Efficient design and customization capabilities have enabled our furnaces to be applied in a wide range of processes such as firing, brazing, annealing, sintering, hardening, glass to metal seal, reflow soldering, epoxy curing, hermetic sealing, LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics ), etc.

Thick Film

After a paste is screened onto a substrate and it settles for 5-15 minutes at room temperature, it undergoes oven drying at 100-150C for 10-15 minutes to remove solvents. Firing is then completed in conveyor belt furnaces at temperatures between 500-1000C.

Recommendations:
HSG Series Thick Film Drying Furnace
HSK Series Thick Film Firing Furnace

Thin Film Solar Cells (CIGS_CdTe_CZTS)

Take CIGS solar cells for example, thin film active layers are commonly formed using sputter deposition. After sputtering, the thin film needs to be annealed at 400-500C to achieve optimum results. It is also possible to inject additional chemicals during the annealing process.

Recommendations:
HSG Series Photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace

Brazing

It is a metal-joining process in which a filler metal is heated slightly above its melting temperature while typically protected by a suitable atmosphere. The filler metal, then flows over the base metal (wetting) and cooled to join the parts together.

Recommendations:
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace

PMC - Post molding curing

The process of exposing the part to an elevated temperature to speed up the curing process and maximize some of the material’s physical properties, as well as to prevent problems such as warpage during encapsulation in chip packages.

 

Recommendations:
HSF Series Hot Air Convection Furnace
HSG Series IR Curing Furnace

Reflow soldering

A process in which a solder paste is melted in a controlled heating environment to permanently connect electrical components to their contact pads or boards. Typical reflow process is done in a reflow convection oven with preheating zone, thermal soaking zone, and cooling zone to avoid thermal shock, spattering, and oxidation.

Recommendations:
HSF Series Reflow Convection Furnace

Low Temperature ceramic co-firing (LTCC)

It is a process in which all the conductive, resistive, dielectric materials are fired along with the supporting ceramic structure in a furnace at a sintering temperature less than 1000°C.

Recommendations:
HSK Series Thick Film Firing Furnace

Lithium Battery Cells Processing

The processing of lithium-based battery materials for industrial and commercial use. Ex. Lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganese oxide, lithium cobalt oxide, ternary materials, lithium battery cathodes and anodes; first and secondary firing process.

Recommendations:
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace
HT Series Pusher Tunnel Furnace

Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell

Electrical contacts are usually formed by screen printing. The firing is done in conveyor belt furnaces at a temperature of about 700C for a few minutes. Upon firing, the organic solvents evaporate and the metal powder becomes a conducting path for the electrical current.

Recommendations:
HSG Series photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

TiO2 nanoparticles have been used extensively to increase the interfacial surface area in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. Nanoparticle films are generally made by screen printing a paste of titania nanocrystals and then sintering the particles together at 450-500C.

Recommendations:
HSG Series Photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSK Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace

Glass-to-Metal Seal (GTMS)

During GTMS processing, components are placed on a fixture that holds them in position and put through a belt furnace configured to maintain a controlled atmosphere in the firing chamber. They are heated to appropriate temperatures for the particular set of materials, with the intention to let the glass soften just sufficiently.

Recommendations:
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace

SMT - Surface-Mount Technology

A process for constructing electronic circuits in which the component are mounted directly onto the surface of PCBs. The boards convey into a reflow oven where the temperature is high enough to melt the solder particles in the solder paste and bonding the component leads to the pads on the circuit board.

Recommendations:
HSG Series IR Curing Furnace
HSF Series Hot Air Convection Furnace

Direct Bonded Copper (DBC)

It is the process in which a ceramic substrate typically made of alumina, AlN or BeO is bonded to a sheet of copper one or both sides through a high temperature oxidation process. Typically, the entire substrate is heat to an elevated temperature between 1065°C – 1083°C in a controlled atmosphere of nitrogen and oxygen.

Recommendations:
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace

Calcination

It is a thermal treatment process in which the product is brought to an elevated temperature below its melting point in the presence of air to create a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of volatile substances.

Recommendations:
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace
HSK Series Fast Response Furnace
HT Series Pusher Tunnel Furnace

Metal Heat Treating

Heat treating is an essential step in achieving desired properties of alloy. Common methods include annealing, normalizing, quenching and tempering. For alloys with oxidation risks, protection atmosphere like N2, H2 are needed.

Recommendations:
HSK Series Infrared Photovoltaic Firing Furnace
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace
HSG Series Infrared Drying Furnace