PROCESS APPLICATIONS AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES

Efficient design and customization capabilities have enabled our furnaces to be applied in a wide range of processes such as firing, brazing, annealing, sintering, hardening, glass to metal seal, reflow soldering, epoxy curing, hermetic sealing, LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics ), etc.

Thick Film

After a paste is screened onto a substrate and it settles for 5-15 minutes at room temperature, it undergoes oven drying at 100-150ˇăC for 10-15 minutes to remove solvents. Firing is then completed in conveyor belt furnaces at temperatures between 500-1000ˇăC.

Typical Temperature Profile:

typical temperature profile thick film firing

Recommendations:
HSG Series Thick Film Drying Furnace
HSK Series Thick Film Firing Furnace

Thin Film Solar Cells

Take CIGS solar cells for example, thin film active layers are commonly formed using sputter deposition. After sputtering, the thin film needs to be annealed at 400-500ˇăC to achieve optimum results. It is also possible to inject additional chemicals during the annealing process.

Typical Temperature Profile:

typical temperature profile CIGS annealing

Recommendations:
HSG Series Photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace
HSA Series Atmosphere Control Belt Furnace

Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell

Electrical contacts are usually formed by screen printing. The firing is done in conveyor belt furnaces at a temperature of about 700ˇăC for a few minutes. Upon firing, the organic solvents evaporate and the metal powder becomes a conducting path for the electrical current.

Typical Temperature Profile:

typical temperature profile silicon solar cell firing

Recommendations:
HSG Series photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

TiO2 nanoparticles have been used extensively to increase the interfacial surface area in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. Nanoparticle films are generally made by screen printing a paste of titania nanocrystals and then sintering the particles together at 450-500ˇăC.

Typical Drying and Firing Temperature Profiles:

typical temperature profile dye sensitized solar cell sintering

Recommendations:
HSG Series Photovoltaic Drying Furnace
HSK Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace
HSH Series Photovoltaic Fast Response Furnace